Natural Gas

Natural gas is a gas mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gasses, it is tasteless, colorless and odorless. In its composition, it may not contain mechanical substances, resin and resin forming compounds. It is lighter than air because its density is smaller than the density of air. The combustible gasses of natural gas are saturated or paraffin carbohydrates, i.e. alkanes: methane, ethane and propane. Apart from the above mentioned alkanes, natural gas contains butane (iso and normal butane), pentane (neo, iso and normal pentane) as well as hexane and heptane in little molar (percentage) quantities. From the group of non-combustible gasses, it contains nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
The natural gas transported in the gas pipeline system is of Russian quality, i.e. with methane contents of above 92 (mol%), maximum carbon dioxide contents of 1 (mol%), nitrogen may be found in concentrations to 2 (mol%), while the sulfur concentration is practically negligible. The lower heating value of natural gas is within the limits Hd=33.00 МЈ/nm3- 33.90 МЈ/nm and the relative density is 0.562 kg/Nm3. Natural gas is measured in normal cubic meters (Nm3). One normal cubic meter is a natural gas quantity found in volume of 1m3 at absolute pressure of 1,01325bar and at temperature of 20°С.
Apart from coal, natural gas is the only primary form of energy which can be used without prior preparation. Introducing natural gas in the industrial and energy plants will enable conditions for maximum automation of thermo-energy processes, greater efficiency in the fuel consumption, work productivity increase, reduction of investment equipment maintenance expenses etc. Natural gas is used in thermal energy power plants and industry (for technological, process and energy needs, electricity production in co-generative gas power plants), in households (for cooking, heating water for sanitary needs, heating and cooling) and in the transport sector as an operating fuel for various kinds of motor vehicles. The well elaborated media campaign which highlights the advantages of natural gas as compared to the other fuels, as well as education and economic justifiability of the investments for connection to the system, make the realization of the natural gas project a practical reality. The scope of the natural gas usage in all spheres of living shall depend on the level of energy sector development, the living standard, the readiness to use natural gas both in households and in industry. All these factors are essential for the progress of the natural gas transmission system.